NA If the oligo is a known aptamer sequence: For binding studies, perform a refolding protocol to ensure proper function (i.e. binding to antigen or target). Refer to the aptamer reference source for the appropriate refolding parameters and binding conditions. Note: it is unknown whether aptamer functions properly without refolding.
Aptamer binding was improved by Liss et al by extending the stem loop. The original aptamer lacked the last four base pairs in the stem loop (Kd = 8.4 nM).